WEB 2.0: Making the Web Work for You (Hosie-Bounar/Waxer)-Part 1 | School Project/Assignment

Web 2.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit A: Research 2.0

  1. What are the new key features of Web 2.0 technologies, and how they differ from Web 1.0?  In the past, users could only use the Web to get information. With Web 2.0, the user now has the ability to collaborate with others, interact in virtual or online communities, and generate Web content.
  2. Discuss some things you should consider before sharing information on the Web.  Have to keep in mind that whatever you post on the Web is out there for the world to see unless you set some restrictions.  You should also keep in mind that if you browse the Web or open email without having a firewall and virus protection installed on your computer, you are exposing all of the information on your computer to possible attacks, and yourself to possible identity theft.
  3. Give 3 examples of research tools. As an example of research tools on the Web we can name: Search engines, such as Google, Research Databases, such as school’s or public library’s, and Online Catalogs, such as WorldCat.
  4. What is the difference between a search engine and a meta-search engine? A search engine is a website that finds documents or media related to search terms or keywords that user provides. A meta-search engine is a category of a search engine, which uses multiple search engines in a single search, and therefore returns more results.
  5. What are the benefits of a Subject Guide? For more in depth research a user will have better success using a specialized search engine called a Subject Guide. The advantage is that the information it contains is already categorized for the user.
  6. Discuss the difference between a primary source, a secondary source, and a tertiary source, and give examples of each.  A primary source is directly related to the event or historical figure, such as an interview, sound recording, or photograph. A secondary source interprets or reports on the data or information using primary sources, for example, an article written about the Great Depression. A tertiary source is at least two steps removed from the primary source. Might be an encyclopedia or other large reference network.
  7. Name three things you should consider when you try to determine whether or not a source is valid. Should consider if the reference is a primary, secondary, or tertiary source, if the website for the source is reputable, if other sources confirm the information.
  8. What is the difference between a personal bookmark and a social bookmark? Social bookmarks are bookmarks that you share with friends, classmates, or with the entire web community. A personal bookmark is stored locally on your computer .
  9. What is a mind map and what are its benefits? A mind-mapping tool helps you record information in a format that works for you, revise the information to put it into your own words, and reorganize it in a linear or graphical way, depending on your learning style. Example: mindmeister.com.
  10. Give 3 examples of information that requires you to cite a source.  Quotation or interpretation of data, using direct quotes or data from any primary, secondary, and tertiary source, or if you paraphrase an idea presented in a source.

 

Unit B: Finding Media for Projects

  1. Copyright Law is a category of what broad area of law? Civil Law.
  2. Name 3 types of work protected by copyright. Photographs, videos, and music.
  3. At what point is a work protected by copyright? As soon as it is created.
  4. Explain what Creative Commons licenses allow. Creative Commons licensing offers a way to assign copyright to your work. CC licenses let creators decide which rights they want to retain while allowing others to use the work under certain conditions that the owner selects. Creator can require simple attribution for his work, restrict its commercia use, or not allow derivative use.
  5. Give an example of when a work enters public domain. In the US, nearly every work created prior to 1923 is in the public domain. Copyright lasts the life of the author plus 70 years. For example, the book “The Phantom of Opera”, by Gaston Leroux, is of public domain, as it was published before 1923.
  6. Discuss the difference between crediting authors for their work and getting permission to use a work.  Giving credit to the copyright holder indicates that you are not trying to claim the work as your own, but it doesn’t mean you are using the work properly, with permission. To get permission, a request should be sent to the author with this minimum information on the request letter: your full name, with complete contact information; a specific description of your intended use; a signature line for the copyright holder; a target date when you would like the copyright holder to respond.
  7. Name 3 rights copyright holders have to their work. Right to reproduce the work, prepare Derivative Works of it, distribute copies of it,  perform it publicly and display it publicly.
  8. Name 3 things you should include in a permissions letter. Full name,  a specific description of your intended use, a target date when you would like the copyright holder to respond.
  9. What do you call the rules users post describing how their work can be used? Terms of Use.
  10. Why shouldn’t you assign a Creative Commons license to scanned photographs you found in a box in the attic? Because the photographs are not your original work; they are someone else’s.

Expectations of Privacy, Security and Etiquette in Cyberspace | School Project | By Cindy Bryan

Net, Etiquette

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. What are “online communications”?

Back in the nineties, the fax was the king for press release distribution, all newsletters required stamps, and only computer geeks knew what HTML meant.  Today, of course, trying to work without Internet access is nearly unthinkable, especially in an area like communications, where ease of distribution and cheap bandwidth made possible by technology are revolutionizing the discipline.  Online communications today means more than a website and an e-newsletter. incredible advances in communications technology over the past quarter-century make possible an entirely new model of organizing and ways of bringing people and resources together quickly and efficiently to tackle a single problem or to form lasting communities. In short, online communications today is about forming connections, creating community, and organizing action in previously unimaginable ways.

2. What level of privacy can I expect in my online activity?

The level of privacy from an online activity will often be clear from the nature of that activity. Sometimes, however, an activity that appears to be private may not be. There are virtually no online activities or services that guarantee absolute privacy.

3. Can online services track and record my activity?

Yes. Online activities are NOT anonymous. It is possible to record virtually all online activities, including which newsgroups or files a subscriber accesses and which web sites are visited. This information can be collected by a subscriber’s own ISP and by web site operators.

4. What are Cookies?

When browsing the web, many web sites deposit data on your hard drive about the visit. These data are called “cookies”. When returning to that site, the cookie data will reveal that you’ve been there before. The web site might offer products or ads tailored to the user’s interests, based on the contents of the cookie data.

Most cookies are used only by the web site that placed it on your computer. But some, called third-party cookies, communicate data about the user to an advertising clearinghouse which in turn shares that data with other online marketers.

5. What are Web Bugs?

A web bug is a graphic in a web site or an “enhanced” e-mail message that enables a third party to monitor who is reading the page or message. The graphic may be a standard size image that is easily seen, or it may be a nearly invisible one-pixel graphic. E-mail messages that include graphic displays like web sites are known as enhanced messages, also called stylized or HTML e-mail. The web bug can confirm when the message or web page is viewed and record the IP address of the viewer.

6. What is workplace monitoring?

Employers monitor the Internet sites that an employee visits when accessing the internet from the workplace.

7. Can an online service access information stored in my computer without my knowledge?

Yes. Many of the commercial online services automatically download graphics and program upgrades to the user’s home computer. The subscriber is notified of these activities. But other intrusions are not so evident. Some services have admitted to both accidental and intentional prying into the memory of personal computers. Companies typically explain that they collect information such as users’ hardware, software and usage patterns to provide better customer service.

8. Can hackers get into my computer?

When using a broadband “always-on” service, a user is particularly vulnerable to attacks by hackers. User should install a firewall device that monitors the network activity and allows only the activities the user has authorized.

9. What is spyware and how can I know if it’s on my computer?

Spyware is any software or hardware device that reports a user’s activity. “Ad ware” spyware is installed by software companies as an additional source of income. “Monitoring” spyware was originally intended for parents and employers to monitor computer activity, including file access and keystroke logging, to protect against improper usage by children and employees. “Diagnostic” spyware is used by software companies to log errors and usage habits to improve the next generation of software. The user is usually not aware that spyware has been installed – hence, its name.

10. What can I do to protect my privacy in cyberspace?

1. An account is only as secure as its password. Passwords should be created with nonsensical combinations of upper and lower case letters, numbers and symbols. The same or variations of the same password for different applications should not be used. Passwords should be changed often. Don’t let others watch you log in. Don’t print your password on a post-it note and attach it to your video monitor. If you must write down or record your password, take steps to secure or disguise the information.

2. Look for the privacy policy of the online services you use. Most Internet Service Providers (ISP) have adopted privacy policies that they post on their web sites and other user documentation. When you surf the web, look for the privacy policies posted on the web sites you visit. Also look for a privacy “seal” such as TRUSTe or BBB Online. If you are not satisfied with the policy, or if there is no policy or seal logo posted, avoid using the site.

3. Check your browser’s cookie settings. User may accept or reject all cookies, or may allow only those cookies generated by the website user is visiting. You may want to set a security level for trusted websites while blocking cookie activity for all others.

4. Shop around. Investigate new services before using them. Post a question about a new service in a dependable forum or newsgroup. Bad reputations get around quickly in cyberspace. If others have had negative experiences with a service, you should get the message.

5. Assume that your online communications are not private unless you use encryption software. If you do not use encryption, at least take the following precautions: Do not provide sensitive personal information (phone number, password, address, credit card number, Social Security number, your health information, date of birth, vacation dates, etc.) in chat rooms, forum postings, e-mail messages, or in your online biography.

6. Be cautious of “start-up” software that registers you as a product user and makes an initial connection to the service for you. Typically, these programs require you to provide financial account data or other personal information, and then upload this information automatically to the service. These programs may be able to access records in your computer without your knowledge. Contact the service for alternative subscription methods.

7. Note that public postings made on the Internet are often archived and saved for posterity. It is possible to search and discover the postings an individual has made to Usenet newsgroups and blogs (web logs). Ask yourself if you want an employer, family member, or a marketer to be able to link you to your public postings. Use a pseudonym and a non-descriptive e-mail address when you participate in public forums. Create a non-identifying e-mail address and use it when you participate in newsgroups and other public forums.

8. The “delete” command does not make your e-mail messages disappear. They can still be retrieved from back-up systems. Software utility programs can retrieve deleted messages from your hard drive. If you are concerned about permanently deleting messages and other files on your program, you should use a file erasing program or the cleanup features of general utility software such as Norton’s Clean Sweep.

9. Your online biography, if you create one, may be searched system-wide or remotely “fingered” by anyone. If for any reason you need to safeguard your identity, don’t create an online “bio.” Ask the system operator of your ISP to remove you from its online directory.

10. If you publish information on a personal web page, note that marketers and others may collect your address, phone number, e-mail address and other information that you provide. If you are concerned about your personal privacy, be discreet in your personal web site.

11. Be aware of the possible social dangers of being online: harassment, stalking, being “flamed” (emotional verbal attacks), or “spamming” (being sent unsolicited messages). Women can be vulnerable if their e-mail addresses are recognizable as women’s names. Consider using gender-neutral e-mail addresses and pseudonyms.

12. If your children are online users, teach them about appropriate online privacy behavior. Caution them against revealing information about themselves and your family.

13. Use only secure web sites when you transmit sensitive personal information over the Internet. When you provide your credit card account number to a shopping site, for example, be sure that the transmission is secure. Look for the unbroken padlock at the bottom right of the screen. Also make sure the web address has the letter ‘s’ after http in the address bar at the top of the page.

14. Be aware that online activities leave electronic footprints for others to see. Your own ISP can determine what search engine terms you use, what web sites you visit, and the dates, times, and durations of your online sessions. Web site operators can often track the activities you engage in by placing “cookies” on your computer. They can learn additional information if they ask you to register on their site. Your web browser also can transmit information to web sites.

1. What is Encryption?

Encryption is a method of scrambling an e-mail message or file so that it is gibberish to anyone who does not know how to unscramble it. The privacy advantage of encryption is that anything encrypted is virtually inaccessible to anyone other than the designated recipient. Thus, private information may be encrypted and then transmitted, stored, or distributed without fear that it will be read by others.

2. How programs such as PGP can protect your privacy?

PGP and other encryption programs can protect a user’s privacy by encrypting the information so only intended recipient can access it and understand it (see above, 11. What is Encryption?). Strong encryption programs such as PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) are available online.

3. What is Netiquette?

Netiquette (short for “network etiquette” or “Internet etiquette”) is a set of social conventions that facilitate interaction over networks, ranging from Usenet and mailing lists to blogs and forums. These rules were described in IETF RFC 1855. However, like many Internet phenomena, the concept and its application vary from community to community. The points most strongly emphasized about USENET netiquette often include using simple electronic signatures, and avoiding multi-posting, cross-posting, off-topic posting, hijacking a discussion thread, and other techniques used to minimize the effort required to read a post or a thread.

Bibliography

http://www.spinproject.org/downloads/onlinecomms.pdf

http://surferbeware.com/privacy/privacy-cyberspace-guide.htm

Basic Aspects of PHP | Class Assignment | By Cindy Bryant

PHP

1. What is PHP?

  • PHP stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor
  • PHP is a server-side scripting language (Server-side scripting is a web server technology in which a user’s request is verified by running a script directly on the web server to generate dynamic web pages), like ASP
  • PHP scripts are executed on the server
  • PHP supports many databases (MySQL, Oracle, Sybase, Solid, etc.)
  • PHP is an open source software
  • PHP is free to download and use

2. Describe briefly the history of PHP.

As a web language PHP is without a doubt the most popular server language currently in use. PHP was founded in 1995 by Rasmus Lerdorf, because he needed to build a tool that would track the access to his web page. He used C to create his tools and then he released his tools to open source community under the name PHP/FI (PHP Form Interpreter).

In the first release it had many syntax similarities with Perl and in 1997 PHP 2 was released with some new features. In 1998 PHP 3 was released with many more flexible features in it. And even in that stage it’s said to have occupied 10% of web servers.

PHP 4 came in the year 2000 and it brought a new look to PHP language. A new object oriented look, which resulted in initiating many new web trends such as CMS and Frameworks. In 2004, PHP 5 was released with enhanced OOP abilities.

3. Describe general usage of PHP like server-side scripting, command-line scripting, and client-side GUI applications.

PHP is a general-purpose server-side scripting language originally designed for Web development to produce dynamic Web pages. It is among one of the first developed server-side scripting languages to be embedded into an HTML source document, rather than calling an external file to process data. Ultimately, the code is interpreted by a Web server with a PHP processor module which generates the resulting Web page. It also has evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications. Any PHP code in a requested file is executed by the PHP runtime, usually to create dynamic Web page content or dynamic images used on Web sites or elsewhere. It can also be used for command-line scripting (Unlike web scripts, Command line scripts doesn’t have any maximum execution time limit and they can run as long as they can, unless until the server shuts down. Using command line scripting, we can accomplish many time consuming tasks like taking backup of entire website and databases, transferring files to another server through ftp, and many more), and client-side GUI applications. PHP can be deployed on most Web servers, many operating systems and platforms, and can be used with many relational database management systems (RDBMS). It is available free of charge, and the PHP Group provides the complete source code for users to build, customize and extend for their own use.

PHP acts primarily as a filter, taking input from a file or stream containing text and/or PHP instructions and outputting another stream of data; most commonly the output will be HTML.

Web content management systems written in PHP include Joomla, WordPress, Drupal. All Web sites created using these tools are written in PHP, including the user-facing portion of Wikipedia, Facebook, and Digg.

4. Explain basic PHP syntax.

A PHP scripting block always starts with <?php and ends with ?>. A PHP file normally contains HTML tags, just like an HTML file, and some PHP scripting code. Below, we have an example of a simple PHP script which sends the text “Hello World” to the browser:

<html>
<body>

<?php
echo “Hello World”;
?>

</body>
</html>

Each code line in PHP must end with a semicolon. The semicolon is a separator and is used to distinguish one set of instructions from another.

There are two basic statements to output text with PHP: echo and print. In the example above we have used the echo statement to output the text “Hello World”.

Note: The file must have a .php extension. If the file has a .html extension, the PHP code will not be executed.

In PHP, we use // to make a single-line comment or /* and */ to make a large comment block.

Variables are used for storing values, like text strings, numbers or arrays.All variables in PHP start with a $ sign symbol. The correct way of declaring a variable in PHP:

$var_name = value;

Example:

<?php
$txt=”Hello World!”;
$x=16;
?>

PHP is a Loosely Typed Language: In PHP, a variable does not need to be declared before adding a value to it. PHP automatically converts the variable to the correct data type, depending on its value.

Naming Rules for Variables:

  • A variable name must start with a letter or an underscore “_”
  • A variable name can only contain alpha-numeric characters and underscores (a-z, A-Z, 0-9, and _ )
  • A variable name should not contain spaces. If a variable name is more than one word, it should be separated with an underscore ($my_string), or with capitalization ($myString)

5. Explain how PHP can be applied to a website.

To get access to a web server with PHP support, you can:

  • Install Apache (or IIS) on your own server, install PHP, and MySQL
  • Or find a web hosting plan with PHP and MySQL support

If your server supports PHP you don’t need to do anything. Just create some .php files in your web directory, and the server will parse them for you. Because it is free, most web hosts offer PHP support. However, if your server does not support PHP, you must install PHP.

PHP enjoys such widespread popularity because:

  • It is easy to learn: Its C-like syntax makes it an easy language to learn for programmers and nonprogrammers alike.
  • It blends well with HTML: You can mix PHP scripts right inside your HTML or place HTML tags and code inside PHP files.
  • PHP has a vast library of functions and APIs: PHP’s ability to interact with LDAP, databases and the file system makes it a great “one stop shop” for developers.
  • You can rapidly create Web applications and database-backed applications: PHP is so often used with databases, especially open-source databases, that several books are available on the shared topic of PHP and MySQL.
  • It is cross-platform capable: PHP is used on Windows, Linux, commercial flavors of Unix and MacOS X.

Bibliography

http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/manuals/php3.0.6/intro-history.html

http://www.w3schools.com/PHP/default.asp

http://kidoos.net/forums/t/35.aspx

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PHP