Site Management Questionnaire – Part 4 | Class Assignment

SEO & Site Management








Electronic mailing list

An electronic mailing list is a special usage of email that allows for widespread distribution of information to many Internet users. It is similar to a traditional mailing list — a list of names and addresses — as might be kept by an organization for sending publications to its members or customers, but typically refers to four things — a list of email addresses, the people (“subscribers”) receiving mail at those addresses, the publications (email messages) sent to those addresses, and a reflector, which is a single email address that, when designated as the recipient of a message, will send a copy of that message to all of the subscribers.

How automated electronic mailing lists work

Electronic mailing lists are usually fully or partially automated through the use of special mailing list software and a reflector address that are set up on a server capable of receiving email. Incoming messages sent to the reflector address are processed by the software, and, depending on their content, are acted upon internally (in the case of messages containing commands directed at the software itself) or are distributed to all email addresses subscribed to the mailing list. Depending on the software, additional addresses may be set up for the purpose of sending commands.

Many electronic mailing list servers have a special email address in which subscribers (or those that want to be subscribers) can send commands to the server to perform such tasks as subscribing and unsubscribing, temporarily halting the sending of messages to them, or changing available preferences. The common format for sending these commands is to send an email that contains simply the command followed by the name of the electronic mailing list the command pertains to. Examples: subscribe anylist or subscribe anylist John Doe. Some list servers also allow people to subscribe, unsubscribe, change preferences, etc. via a website.

Electronic mailing list servers can be set to forward messages to subscribers of a particular mailing list either individually as they are received by the list server or in digest form in which all messages received on a particular day by the list server are combined into one email that is sent once per day to subscribers. Some mailing lists allow individual subscribers to decide how they prefer to receive messages from the list server (individual or digest).

Content Management System (CMS)

content management system (CMS) is a computer system that allows publishing, editing, and modifying content as well as site maintenance from a central page. It provides a collection of procedures used to manage workflow in a collaborative environment. These procedures can be manual or computer-based.

Main features

The core features of Content Management Systems vary widely from system to system; many simpler systems showcase only a handful of features, while others, notably enterprise systems, are much more complex and powerful.

  • Allow for a large number of people to share and contribute to stored data;
  • Control access to data based on user role (i.e., define information users or user groups can view, edit, publish, etc.);
  • Facilitate storage and retrieval of data;
  • Control data validity and compliance;
  • Reduce duplicate inputs;
  • Simplify report writing;
  • Improve communication among users.
  • Define data as almost anything: documents, movies, texts, pictures, phone numbers, articles etc.

Data types and usage

In a CMS, data can be defined as nearly anything: documents, movies, text, pictures, phone numbers, scientific data, and so forth. CMSs are frequently used for storing, controlling, revising, semantically enriching, and publishing documentation. Serving as a central repository, the CMS increases the version level of new updates to an already existing file.

Web Content Management System

A web content management system (web CMS) is a bundled or stand-alone application used to create, manage, store, and deploy content on Web pages. Web content includes text and embedded graphics, photos, video, audio, and code (e.g., for applications) that renders other content or interacts with the user. A web CMS may also catalog or index content, select or assemble content at runtime, or deliver content to specific visitors in a personalized way, such as in different languages.

What is Mobify?

Mobify is a mobile technology platform that converts existing websites and e-commerce websites into a version optimized for mobile phones and tablet computers.

Site Management Questionnaire – Part 3 | Class Assignment

SEO & Site Management

How does Google Analytics work?

Google Analytics uses a first-party cookie and JavaScript code to collect information about visitors and to track your advertising campaign data. Google Analytics anonymously tracks how visitors interact with a website, including where they came from, what they did on a site, and whether they completed any of the site’s conversion goals. Analytics also keeps track of your e-commerce data, and combines this with campaign and conversion information to provide insight into the performance of your advertising campaigns.

All of this information is presented in an easy-to-read, yet thorough manner, through intuitive, visual reports. Google Analytics won’t affect the performance or the appearance of your website and there are no extra files to host on your website.

With information from Google Analytics, you will be able to drive traffic more efficiently to your site, and convert that traffic more effectively.

Google Analytics Installation Guide

The Google Analytics Installation Guide is intended to allow you to quickly set up and configure a successful set of reports for a profile. If you need more detailed information on any topic, please search our Help Center.

Step 1 – Create a Google Analytics account
Step 2 – Configure your profile
Step 3 – Edit the tracking code for custom website setups
Step 4 – Add the tracking code to your pages
Step 5 – Link with your AdWords account
Step 6 – Create goals and funnels
Step 7 – Tag your advertising campaigns
Step 8 – Creating Filters
Step 9 – Grant access to other users
Step 10 – Enable e-commerce transaction tracking

Research and briefly describe what WHOIS is.

WHOIS (pronounced as the phrase who is) is a query and response protocol that is widely used for querying databases that store the registered users or assignees of an Internet resource, such as a domain name, an IP address block, or an autonomous system, but is also used for a wider range of other information. The protocol stores and delivers database content in a human-readable format.

How does Google Custom Search Engine work and what benefits can bring to your site?

Google Custom Search enables you to create a search engine for your website, your blog, or a collection of websites. You can configure your search engine to search both web pages and images. You can fine-tune the ranking, customize the look and feel of the search results, and invite your friends or trusted users to help you build your custom search engine. You can even make money from your search engine by using your Google AdSense account.

You can create a search engine that searches only the contents of your website, or you can create one that focuses on a particular topic. You can use your expertise about a subject to tell Custom Search which websites to search, prioritize, or ignore. Because you know your users well, you can tailor the search engine to their interests. For example, when an avid cyclist searches for “wheel” on Google search, she will have to sift through hundreds of results on automobile tires, steering wheels, or Buddhist wheels. This is because Google search cannot tell that the intended context is “wheels for bicycles.” A custom search engine for bicycles, on the other hand, would search only pre-selected websites on bicycles and give relevant results to the cyclist.

Site Management Questionnaire – Part 2 | Class Assignment

SEO & Site Management









How to Point Your Domain Name to Third Party Web Hosting Server

You already registered a domain name with company A but just bought or going to buy a web hosting service from company B. But you don’t want to incur extra cost by transferring your domain name from company A to company B. So, what you can do to save cost but yet still get to connect your domain name (any kind of extension including to the web host is to change DNS (domain name servers), or what most people called “pointing domain name to web space”.

Don’t worry, this is no difficult task, even an 8-year-old can do, so long as you follow the simple steps below.

Step 1 — Get the Domain Name Servers (DNS)

Let’s say you got your domain name registered with Company A, and you had just purchased a third party web hosting service package (including web space, of course) from Company B.

Now, to point your domain name from Company A to Company B’s server, you must first get to know the name servers of Company B which usually look something like this:

Domain name servers (DNS) in pair

Name servers typically come in pairs in case there is a failure with one of them. As such, most hosting systems require you to enter at least 2 name servers as a safety measure. You can easily find this DNS pair in your web hosting account. If not, you can check with Company B’s customer support via email, phone or live chat (if any).

Step 2 — Change Your Domain Name Server (DNS) Setting

Once you grab hold of that DNS data (of Company B), next, log into your domain account residing in Company A and then access the domain control panel to edit the name servers in there.

Let’s say you have 2 registered domain names in Company A, and is what you would want it to point to the new web space (in this example, Company B’s web server), then just select to modify its name servers.

You might see more than 2 fields for nameservers in your domain control panel. Theoretically, the more name servers you enter, the more safety nets your site has, but entering the first two mandatory nameservers are more than enough to protect your site against unexpected server failure.

After entering the 1st and 2nd name servers, save the settings. That’s it. DNS change done.

Changes to the DNS setting may take an average of up to 48 hours to propagate and become effective. If your domain name has not settled down on the new webspace after 2 days, quickly contact your new hosting company about it.

What If You Want to Point 2 or More Domain Names to the Same Website?

Let’s say you want 2 domain names to direct your online visitors to the same website, now in this scenario, you need not edit the name servers for all 2 domain names. You only need to do for one domain name which is the primary name for your website. As for the other domain name, all you need to do is just set a 301 or 302 redirection and forward it to that primary domain name.

For example, you have set the DNS for to point to your website. Then you have which you also want to point to the same website. Go to your domain control panel for and set it to forward to Done.

If you wish to temporarily forward to until you have come up with a great idea on what kind of website you should build for, then set the [Redirect type] to “302 Moved Temporarily”.


Site Management Questionnaire – Part 1 | Class Assignment

SEO & Site Management








Please research and define following terms:

a. IP Address : An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. Its role has been characterized as follows: “A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there.

b. Shared web hosting service : A shared web hosting service or virtual hosting service or derive host refers to a web hosting service where many websites reside on one web server connected to the Internet. Each site “sits” on its own partition, or section/place on the server, to keep it separate from other sites. This is generally the most economical option for hosting, as many people share the overall cost of server maintenance.

c. Dedicated hosting service : A dedicated hosting service, dedicated server, or managed hosting service is a type of Internet hosting in which the client leases an entire server not shared with anyone. This is more flexible than shared hosting, as organizations have full control over the server(s), including choice of operating system, hardware, etc. Server administration can usually be provided by the hosting company as an add-on service.

d. Managed hosting service : See dedicated hosting service.

e. Domain : A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority, or control on the Internet. Domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS).

f. Sub-domain : The Domain Name System (DNS) has a tree structure or hierarchy, with each node on the tree being a domain name. A subdomain is a domain that is part of a larger domain, the only domain that is not also a subdomain is the root domain.[1] For example, and are subdomains of the domain, which in turn is a subdomain of the com top-level domain (TLD).

g. Domain pointers : Domain pointers allow you to point multiple domain names to a single Web site. For example: If your domain is and you also have, by using a domain pointer, you can have directed to

h. Domain parkings : Domain parking is the registration of an Internet domain name without using it for services such as e-mail or a website i.e without placing any content on the domain. This may be done to reserve the domain name for future development, to protect against the possibility of cybersquatting, or to engage in cybersquatting. Since the domain name registrar will have set name servers for the domain, the registrar or resellerpotentially has use of the domain rather than the final registrant.

i. DSN (Domain Name system) : The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities.

j. Private Domain Registration : Domain privacy is a service offered by a number of domain name registrars. A user buys privacy from the company, who in turn replaces the user’s info in the WHOIS with the info of a forwarding service (for email and sometimes postal mail, done by a proxy server) such as “Domains by Proxy, Inc.” or eNom’s “ID Protect”.

k. Domain Locking : REGISTRAR-LOCK is a status code that can be set on an Internet domain name by the sponsoring registrar of the domain name. This is usually done in order to prevent unauthorized, unwanted or accidental changes to the domain name.

l. Domain Forwarding : Domain redirection or domain forwarding is when all pages in a URL domain are redirected to a different domain, as when and are automatically redirected to

m. Disk Space : The term “disk space” is an amount of computer storage space on random-access memory devices, such as on a hard drive, floppy or USB flash drive

n. Site Admin Control Panel : The SiteAdmin Control Panel will allow you to manage and monitor your site 24 x 7 x 365 through a web browser.

o. FTP: File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet. It is often used to upload web pages and other documents from a private development machine to a public web-hosting server.

p. FTP Accounts : An essential part of the website setup process is publishing it online, which includes uploading its files to a host server where the website is planned to be located. Since in most cases this includes the transfer of many files at a time, utilizing a dedicated FTP program is the quickest and easiest way to do that. In order for the users to be able to connect to the respective hostserver through an FTP client, they need to have rights to access that server. These authorization access rights are assigned to users by their hosting providers in the form of FTP accounts.

q. POP e-mail address : In computing, the Post Office Protocol (POP) is an application-layer Internet standard protocol used by local e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection.[1]POP and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) are the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval

r. SMTP e-mail access : Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (e-mail) transmission across Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

s. SSL : Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols that provide communication security over the Internet.[1] TLS and SSL encrypt the segments of network connections at the Transport Layer, using asymmetric cryptography for key exchange, symmetric encryption for privacy, and message authentication codes for message integrity.

t. RAW logs : raw logs are plain text files containing information about visitors and activity on your site. They are useful in generating web stats for your website

u. Site statistics : Web analytics is the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of internet data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage

v. CGI Bin : The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a standard method for web server software to delegate the generation of web pages to executable files. Such files are known as CGI scripts; they are programs, often stand-alone applications, usually written in a scripting language.

w. PHP : PHP is a general-purpose server-side scripting language originally designed for Web development to produce dynamic Web pages. It is one of the first developed server-side scripting languages to be embedded into an HTML source document, rather than calling an external file to process data.

x. Perl : Perl is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language.

y. My SQL :  is the world’s most used relational database management system (RDBMS)that runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases.

z. Python : Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language whose design philosophy emphasizes code readability. Python claims to combine “remarkable power with very clear syntax”, and its standard library is large and comprehensive.

WEB 2.0: Making the Web Work for You (Hosie-Bounar/Waxer)-Part 2 | Class Assignment/Project

Web 2.0

Unit C: Collaborating and Sharing Information

  1. Name 2 of the major uses of Web 2.0 technologies by business.  Web 2.0 technologies have helped businesses by cutting costs and improving customer support and innovation. Some businesses use company-based blogs, live chat, and social networking.
  2. Name 2 of the major uses of Web 2.0 technologies by governments.  Governments use Web 2.0 technologies not only to convey information to the public and provide online services, but also to gather information, which then they use to share resources, build consensus, improve services, and make policy decisions.
  3. What is the purpose of a blog? The purpose of a blog is to convey and share information; it is a “public relations” tool.
  4. Why would you subscribe to an RSS feed? An RSS feed provides a subscriber with information from frequently updated Web content, such as blogs. The benefit of RSS feeds is that you don’t have to constantly check whether a site has been updated. When an update occurs, you are notified immediately.
  5. Why would a business use a conversational search engine? In order to monitor what is being said about a company online, a business can use a conversational search engine, which sends updates whenever a person with standing in the industry or area of interest comments about a company or other topic online.
  6. How could offering a product or service for free make money in the long run?.  Because in order to get the free product, potential customers fill out a form with their information. Businesses use this information for customer profiling and data mining, the process of gathering consumer information and then analyzing it in order to get potential clients.
  7. Why is it a good idea to have an agenda for any meeting?. An agenda is a list of items you plan to discuss at a meeting. It is a good idea to have an agenda because groups can easily get off track, and also to avoid missing an important idea or subject to discuss.
  8. What might be the result of a polling question that shows the questioner’s bias? It will probably result in a “push poll”, where the pollster asks questions to push a respondent toward one idea and away from another.
  9. Name 2 situations that would indicate that your poll does not represent an effective sampling of opinion. For example, if the poll allows for an individual person to vote more than once. Another example, if polling the student body, cannot poll only freshmen or only seniors, or exclude some majors. The sample of respondents must be random and broad.
  10. Name 3 benefits of collaborative software.  Flexibility, cost savings, access to documents from anywhere at any time.

Unit D: Perfecting Your Online Persona

  1. List 2 elements that make up your e-persona. Your e-mail address, your profile picture.
  2. Why should you carefully consider each friend request before you accept it?. Because, as people you are linked to, are at the same time linked to other people, you lose control of the distribution of your words or images.
  3. How can you control your visibility on a site like Facebook? By modifying the privacy settings on your account.
  4. What is the purpose of a background check?. To find out who you are.
  5. Why might it be damaging to your reputation if someone sets up an imposter account?. Because the imposter may be pretending it is you, and in this way spam your email list, or worse, steal your identity.
  6. Discuss 2 key differences between social networking and professional networking.  Professional networking connects people based on their shared professions, industries, contacts, and goals. Social networking is casual, connects you with all kinds of people.
  7. Name 3 services that an online professional organization can provide. Training and development, networking, job postings.
  8. What is the difference between a blog and a micro blog?. The difference is that a micro blog only allows a limited number of characters.
  9. Why might a reader object to seeing ads on your blog? Besides of annoyance, because maybe the purpose of the site itself does not agree with advertising.
  10. What is the purpose of an e-portfolio? You can gather your important online information in one place. It is your personal home page.

WEB 2.0: Making the Web Work for You (Hosie-Bounar/Waxer)-Part 1 | School Project/Assignment

Web 2.0








Unit A: Research 2.0

  1. What are the new key features of Web 2.0 technologies, and how they differ from Web 1.0?  In the past, users could only use the Web to get information. With Web 2.0, the user now has the ability to collaborate with others, interact in virtual or online communities, and generate Web content.
  2. Discuss some things you should consider before sharing information on the Web.  Have to keep in mind that whatever you post on the Web is out there for the world to see unless you set some restrictions.  You should also keep in mind that if you browse the Web or open email without having a firewall and virus protection installed on your computer, you are exposing all of the information on your computer to possible attacks, and yourself to possible identity theft.
  3. Give 3 examples of research tools. As an example of research tools on the Web we can name: Search engines, such as Google, Research Databases, such as school’s or public library’s, and Online Catalogs, such as WorldCat.
  4. What is the difference between a search engine and a meta-search engine? A search engine is a website that finds documents or media related to search terms or keywords that user provides. A meta-search engine is a category of a search engine, which uses multiple search engines in a single search, and therefore returns more results.
  5. What are the benefits of a Subject Guide? For more in depth research a user will have better success using a specialized search engine called a Subject Guide. The advantage is that the information it contains is already categorized for the user.
  6. Discuss the difference between a primary source, a secondary source, and a tertiary source, and give examples of each.  A primary source is directly related to the event or historical figure, such as an interview, sound recording, or photograph. A secondary source interprets or reports on the data or information using primary sources, for example, an article written about the Great Depression. A tertiary source is at least two steps removed from the primary source. Might be an encyclopedia or other large reference network.
  7. Name three things you should consider when you try to determine whether or not a source is valid. Should consider if the reference is a primary, secondary, or tertiary source, if the website for the source is reputable, if other sources confirm the information.
  8. What is the difference between a personal bookmark and a social bookmark? Social bookmarks are bookmarks that you share with friends, classmates, or with the entire web community. A personal bookmark is stored locally on your computer .
  9. What is a mind map and what are its benefits? A mind-mapping tool helps you record information in a format that works for you, revise the information to put it into your own words, and reorganize it in a linear or graphical way, depending on your learning style. Example:
  10. Give 3 examples of information that requires you to cite a source.  Quotation or interpretation of data, using direct quotes or data from any primary, secondary, and tertiary source, or if you paraphrase an idea presented in a source.


Unit B: Finding Media for Projects

  1. Copyright Law is a category of what broad area of law? Civil Law.
  2. Name 3 types of work protected by copyright. Photographs, videos, and music.
  3. At what point is a work protected by copyright? As soon as it is created.
  4. Explain what Creative Commons licenses allow. Creative Commons licensing offers a way to assign copyright to your work. CC licenses let creators decide which rights they want to retain while allowing others to use the work under certain conditions that the owner selects. Creator can require simple attribution for his work, restrict its commercia use, or not allow derivative use.
  5. Give an example of when a work enters public domain. In the US, nearly every work created prior to 1923 is in the public domain. Copyright lasts the life of the author plus 70 years. For example, the book “The Phantom of Opera”, by Gaston Leroux, is of public domain, as it was published before 1923.
  6. Discuss the difference between crediting authors for their work and getting permission to use a work.  Giving credit to the copyright holder indicates that you are not trying to claim the work as your own, but it doesn’t mean you are using the work properly, with permission. To get permission, a request should be sent to the author with this minimum information on the request letter: your full name, with complete contact information; a specific description of your intended use; a signature line for the copyright holder; a target date when you would like the copyright holder to respond.
  7. Name 3 rights copyright holders have to their work. Right to reproduce the work, prepare Derivative Works of it, distribute copies of it,  perform it publicly and display it publicly.
  8. Name 3 things you should include in a permissions letter. Full name,  a specific description of your intended use, a target date when you would like the copyright holder to respond.
  9. What do you call the rules users post describing how their work can be used? Terms of Use.
  10. Why shouldn’t you assign a Creative Commons license to scanned photographs you found in a box in the attic? Because the photographs are not your original work; they are someone else’s.

Expectations of Privacy, Security and Etiquette in Cyberspace | School Project | By Cindy Bryan

Net, Etiquette








1. What are “online communications”?

Back in the nineties, the fax was the king for press release distribution, all newsletters required stamps, and only computer geeks knew what HTML meant.  Today, of course, trying to work without Internet access is nearly unthinkable, especially in an area like communications, where ease of distribution and cheap bandwidth made possible by technology are revolutionizing the discipline.  Online communications today means more than a website and an e-newsletter. incredible advances in communications technology over the past quarter-century make possible an entirely new model of organizing and ways of bringing people and resources together quickly and efficiently to tackle a single problem or to form lasting communities. In short, online communications today is about forming connections, creating community, and organizing action in previously unimaginable ways.

2. What level of privacy can I expect in my online activity?

The level of privacy from an online activity will often be clear from the nature of that activity. Sometimes, however, an activity that appears to be private may not be. There are virtually no online activities or services that guarantee absolute privacy.

3. Can online services track and record my activity?

Yes. Online activities are NOT anonymous. It is possible to record virtually all online activities, including which newsgroups or files a subscriber accesses and which web sites are visited. This information can be collected by a subscriber’s own ISP and by web site operators.

4. What are Cookies?

When browsing the web, many web sites deposit data on your hard drive about the visit. These data are called “cookies”. When returning to that site, the cookie data will reveal that you’ve been there before. The web site might offer products or ads tailored to the user’s interests, based on the contents of the cookie data.

Most cookies are used only by the web site that placed it on your computer. But some, called third-party cookies, communicate data about the user to an advertising clearinghouse which in turn shares that data with other online marketers.

5. What are Web Bugs?

A web bug is a graphic in a web site or an “enhanced” e-mail message that enables a third party to monitor who is reading the page or message. The graphic may be a standard size image that is easily seen, or it may be a nearly invisible one-pixel graphic. E-mail messages that include graphic displays like web sites are known as enhanced messages, also called stylized or HTML e-mail. The web bug can confirm when the message or web page is viewed and record the IP address of the viewer.

6. What is workplace monitoring?

Employers monitor the Internet sites that an employee visits when accessing the internet from the workplace.

7. Can an online service access information stored in my computer without my knowledge?

Yes. Many of the commercial online services automatically download graphics and program upgrades to the user’s home computer. The subscriber is notified of these activities. But other intrusions are not so evident. Some services have admitted to both accidental and intentional prying into the memory of personal computers. Companies typically explain that they collect information such as users’ hardware, software and usage patterns to provide better customer service.

8. Can hackers get into my computer?

When using a broadband “always-on” service, a user is particularly vulnerable to attacks by hackers. User should install a firewall device that monitors the network activity and allows only the activities the user has authorized.

9. What is spyware and how can I know if it’s on my computer?

Spyware is any software or hardware device that reports a user’s activity. “Ad ware” spyware is installed by software companies as an additional source of income. “Monitoring” spyware was originally intended for parents and employers to monitor computer activity, including file access and keystroke logging, to protect against improper usage by children and employees. “Diagnostic” spyware is used by software companies to log errors and usage habits to improve the next generation of software. The user is usually not aware that spyware has been installed – hence, its name.

10. What can I do to protect my privacy in cyberspace?

1. An account is only as secure as its password. Passwords should be created with nonsensical combinations of upper and lower case letters, numbers and symbols. The same or variations of the same password for different applications should not be used. Passwords should be changed often. Don’t let others watch you log in. Don’t print your password on a post-it note and attach it to your video monitor. If you must write down or record your password, take steps to secure or disguise the information.

2. Look for the privacy policy of the online services you use. Most Internet Service Providers (ISP) have adopted privacy policies that they post on their web sites and other user documentation. When you surf the web, look for the privacy policies posted on the web sites you visit. Also look for a privacy “seal” such as TRUSTe or BBB Online. If you are not satisfied with the policy, or if there is no policy or seal logo posted, avoid using the site.

3. Check your browser’s cookie settings. User may accept or reject all cookies, or may allow only those cookies generated by the website user is visiting. You may want to set a security level for trusted websites while blocking cookie activity for all others.

4. Shop around. Investigate new services before using them. Post a question about a new service in a dependable forum or newsgroup. Bad reputations get around quickly in cyberspace. If others have had negative experiences with a service, you should get the message.

5. Assume that your online communications are not private unless you use encryption software. If you do not use encryption, at least take the following precautions: Do not provide sensitive personal information (phone number, password, address, credit card number, Social Security number, your health information, date of birth, vacation dates, etc.) in chat rooms, forum postings, e-mail messages, or in your online biography.

6. Be cautious of “start-up” software that registers you as a product user and makes an initial connection to the service for you. Typically, these programs require you to provide financial account data or other personal information, and then upload this information automatically to the service. These programs may be able to access records in your computer without your knowledge. Contact the service for alternative subscription methods.

7. Note that public postings made on the Internet are often archived and saved for posterity. It is possible to search and discover the postings an individual has made to Usenet newsgroups and blogs (web logs). Ask yourself if you want an employer, family member, or a marketer to be able to link you to your public postings. Use a pseudonym and a non-descriptive e-mail address when you participate in public forums. Create a non-identifying e-mail address and use it when you participate in newsgroups and other public forums.

8. The “delete” command does not make your e-mail messages disappear. They can still be retrieved from back-up systems. Software utility programs can retrieve deleted messages from your hard drive. If you are concerned about permanently deleting messages and other files on your program, you should use a file erasing program or the cleanup features of general utility software such as Norton’s Clean Sweep.

9. Your online biography, if you create one, may be searched system-wide or remotely “fingered” by anyone. If for any reason you need to safeguard your identity, don’t create an online “bio.” Ask the system operator of your ISP to remove you from its online directory.

10. If you publish information on a personal web page, note that marketers and others may collect your address, phone number, e-mail address and other information that you provide. If you are concerned about your personal privacy, be discreet in your personal web site.

11. Be aware of the possible social dangers of being online: harassment, stalking, being “flamed” (emotional verbal attacks), or “spamming” (being sent unsolicited messages). Women can be vulnerable if their e-mail addresses are recognizable as women’s names. Consider using gender-neutral e-mail addresses and pseudonyms.

12. If your children are online users, teach them about appropriate online privacy behavior. Caution them against revealing information about themselves and your family.

13. Use only secure web sites when you transmit sensitive personal information over the Internet. When you provide your credit card account number to a shopping site, for example, be sure that the transmission is secure. Look for the unbroken padlock at the bottom right of the screen. Also make sure the web address has the letter ‘s’ after http in the address bar at the top of the page.

14. Be aware that online activities leave electronic footprints for others to see. Your own ISP can determine what search engine terms you use, what web sites you visit, and the dates, times, and durations of your online sessions. Web site operators can often track the activities you engage in by placing “cookies” on your computer. They can learn additional information if they ask you to register on their site. Your web browser also can transmit information to web sites.

1. What is Encryption?

Encryption is a method of scrambling an e-mail message or file so that it is gibberish to anyone who does not know how to unscramble it. The privacy advantage of encryption is that anything encrypted is virtually inaccessible to anyone other than the designated recipient. Thus, private information may be encrypted and then transmitted, stored, or distributed without fear that it will be read by others.

2. How programs such as PGP can protect your privacy?

PGP and other encryption programs can protect a user’s privacy by encrypting the information so only intended recipient can access it and understand it (see above, 11. What is Encryption?). Strong encryption programs such as PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) are available online.

3. What is Netiquette?

Netiquette (short for “network etiquette” or “Internet etiquette”) is a set of social conventions that facilitate interaction over networks, ranging from Usenet and mailing lists to blogs and forums. These rules were described in IETF RFC 1855. However, like many Internet phenomena, the concept and its application vary from community to community. The points most strongly emphasized about USENET netiquette often include using simple electronic signatures, and avoiding multi-posting, cross-posting, off-topic posting, hijacking a discussion thread, and other techniques used to minimize the effort required to read a post or a thread.


Basic Aspects of PHP | Class Assignment | By Cindy Bryant


1. What is PHP?

  • PHP stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor
  • PHP is a server-side scripting language (Server-side scripting is a web server technology in which a user’s request is verified by running a script directly on the web server to generate dynamic web pages), like ASP
  • PHP scripts are executed on the server
  • PHP supports many databases (MySQL, Oracle, Sybase, Solid, etc.)
  • PHP is an open source software
  • PHP is free to download and use

2. Describe briefly the history of PHP.

As a web language PHP is without a doubt the most popular server language currently in use. PHP was founded in 1995 by Rasmus Lerdorf, because he needed to build a tool that would track the access to his web page. He used C to create his tools and then he released his tools to open source community under the name PHP/FI (PHP Form Interpreter).

In the first release it had many syntax similarities with Perl and in 1997 PHP 2 was released with some new features. In 1998 PHP 3 was released with many more flexible features in it. And even in that stage it’s said to have occupied 10% of web servers.

PHP 4 came in the year 2000 and it brought a new look to PHP language. A new object oriented look, which resulted in initiating many new web trends such as CMS and Frameworks. In 2004, PHP 5 was released with enhanced OOP abilities.

3. Describe general usage of PHP like server-side scripting, command-line scripting, and client-side GUI applications.

PHP is a general-purpose server-side scripting language originally designed for Web development to produce dynamic Web pages. It is among one of the first developed server-side scripting languages to be embedded into an HTML source document, rather than calling an external file to process data. Ultimately, the code is interpreted by a Web server with a PHP processor module which generates the resulting Web page. It also has evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications. Any PHP code in a requested file is executed by the PHP runtime, usually to create dynamic Web page content or dynamic images used on Web sites or elsewhere. It can also be used for command-line scripting (Unlike web scripts, Command line scripts doesn’t have any maximum execution time limit and they can run as long as they can, unless until the server shuts down. Using command line scripting, we can accomplish many time consuming tasks like taking backup of entire website and databases, transferring files to another server through ftp, and many more), and client-side GUI applications. PHP can be deployed on most Web servers, many operating systems and platforms, and can be used with many relational database management systems (RDBMS). It is available free of charge, and the PHP Group provides the complete source code for users to build, customize and extend for their own use.

PHP acts primarily as a filter, taking input from a file or stream containing text and/or PHP instructions and outputting another stream of data; most commonly the output will be HTML.

Web content management systems written in PHP include Joomla, WordPress, Drupal. All Web sites created using these tools are written in PHP, including the user-facing portion of Wikipedia, Facebook, and Digg.

4. Explain basic PHP syntax.

A PHP scripting block always starts with <?php and ends with ?>. A PHP file normally contains HTML tags, just like an HTML file, and some PHP scripting code. Below, we have an example of a simple PHP script which sends the text “Hello World” to the browser:


echo “Hello World”;


Each code line in PHP must end with a semicolon. The semicolon is a separator and is used to distinguish one set of instructions from another.

There are two basic statements to output text with PHP: echo and print. In the example above we have used the echo statement to output the text “Hello World”.

Note: The file must have a .php extension. If the file has a .html extension, the PHP code will not be executed.

In PHP, we use // to make a single-line comment or /* and */ to make a large comment block.

Variables are used for storing values, like text strings, numbers or arrays.All variables in PHP start with a $ sign symbol. The correct way of declaring a variable in PHP:

$var_name = value;


$txt=”Hello World!”;

PHP is a Loosely Typed Language: In PHP, a variable does not need to be declared before adding a value to it. PHP automatically converts the variable to the correct data type, depending on its value.

Naming Rules for Variables:

  • A variable name must start with a letter or an underscore “_”
  • A variable name can only contain alpha-numeric characters and underscores (a-z, A-Z, 0-9, and _ )
  • A variable name should not contain spaces. If a variable name is more than one word, it should be separated with an underscore ($my_string), or with capitalization ($myString)

5. Explain how PHP can be applied to a website.

To get access to a web server with PHP support, you can:

  • Install Apache (or IIS) on your own server, install PHP, and MySQL
  • Or find a web hosting plan with PHP and MySQL support

If your server supports PHP you don’t need to do anything. Just create some .php files in your web directory, and the server will parse them for you. Because it is free, most web hosts offer PHP support. However, if your server does not support PHP, you must install PHP.

PHP enjoys such widespread popularity because:

  • It is easy to learn: Its C-like syntax makes it an easy language to learn for programmers and nonprogrammers alike.
  • It blends well with HTML: You can mix PHP scripts right inside your HTML or place HTML tags and code inside PHP files.
  • PHP has a vast library of functions and APIs: PHP’s ability to interact with LDAP, databases and the file system makes it a great “one stop shop” for developers.
  • You can rapidly create Web applications and database-backed applications: PHP is so often used with databases, especially open-source databases, that several books are available on the shared topic of PHP and MySQL.
  • It is cross-platform capable: PHP is used on Windows, Linux, commercial flavors of Unix and MacOS X.


School Project: What is File Compression?

What is File Compression?
File Compression is a software that uses a combination of dictionary words, numbers, and patterns through an algorithm that picks up repeated content within any file to reduce it half of its original size.  By reducing the file size in half or less, file compression basically re-wraps half of the important content of that file in what is called a “zip file”, in other words a compressed zip format.  This type of compression can be done with any type of file text, images, or graphics.  Most computers now come prepackaged with a default file compression software that allows you to zip any file.

The benefit of using file compression is that by reducing your file to half its original size, you are using fewer bits, bytes to travel via the net.  In other words, it takes less time to send to its destination and in some instances some networks limit the file size you can send via the internet, which means that by using a zip format you can then still manage to send your large file.  With having the ability to compress a file, you also have the ability to open a zip file and decompress it back to its original state.  This is a great way to send several files that normally would take up a lot of width band, but using a file compressing software like Zip it, WinZap, and there’s several others out there will allow you to send large files in less than 5 MB, or even less depending on what it is.  Tom Harris, wrote an article explaining in much details the break down of how a file compression works and it’s algorithm.  Here’s the link to that article for in-depth description of file compression,